The First World War (abbreviated as WWI or WW1) was a global war that took place in Europe from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. This was known as the Great War or “the war that ended all wars”. This war led to the gathering of more than 70 million military personnel, including 6 million European individuals (Europeans), making it one of the largest wars in history. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated 9 million combatants killed and 1.3 million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918 caused 1.7-10 million deaths worldwide. , With an estimated 26.4 million deaths in Europe and 6.75 lakh deaths in the United States from the Spanish flu.
On 28 June 1914, the Serb Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Principal of Bosnia killed the Austro-Hungarian heir, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo, creating a July crisis. In response, Austria-Hungary issued a final warning to Serbia on 23 July. The north of Serbia failed to satisfy the Austrians, and both went to war level. if you read all information about World War 1 then please go to Historybaba.
A network of alliances plagued much of Europe with bilateral issues in the Balkans. By July 1914, the superpowers of Europe were divided into two alliances, the Triple Entente: which included France, Russia, and Britain; And the Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. The Triple Alliance’s nature was only defensive, allowing Italy to stay out of the war until April 1915, when it joined the Allied Powers after the deterioration of its relations with Austria-Hungary. Russia felt the need to withdraw Serbia, and on 28 July partially approved the aggregation after the shelling of the Serbian capital of Belgrade, Austria-Hungary.
Due to the Industrial Revolution, all the big countries wanted such colonies from where they could get the raw materials and all could sell the things made and machines made in their country. To achieve this objective, every country wanted to rule over other countries and for this military power was increased and secret diplomatic treaties were made. This increased mistrust and hostility among nations and made war inevitable. The immediate cause of this war was the slaughter of Archduke Ferdinand and his wife, the heir to the throne of Austria. The incident took place on 28 June 1914, in Sarajevo. A month later, Austria declared war against Serbia. Russia, France and Britain assisted Serbia and Germany assisted Austria. In August, Japan, Britain etc. and later Osmania, Germany, joined the war.
Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy and Japan (allied powers) were mobilized by Germany, Austria, Hungary and Osmania (so-called central powers) by mid-August and the United States joined the Allies after 1917. happened.
This war was fought in Europe, Asia and Africa on three continents and in water, land and sky. Germany won initially. In 1917, Germany sank a number of merchant ships. Once Germany sank the Lusitania ship of England with its submarine. In which there were some American citizens, this led America to jump into war on the British side, but Russia got separated from the World War due to the Russian Revolution. In 1918, Britain, France and America defeated Germany and other nations. The war ended on 11 November 1918 at the request of Germany and Austria.
Many battles took place under this great war. Of these, Tenenburg (26 to 31 August 1914), Marnum (5 to 10 September 1914), Suri Bair and Souvla Bay (6 to 10 August 1915), Verduan (21 February 1916 to 20 August 1917), Amien ( 8 to 11 August 1918), and the battles of Financeorio Beneto (23 to 29 October 1918), etc., have been given more importance. Only a brief account of two is given here.
The main target of the 1916 invasions by Germany was Burdun. In order to disintegrate the allied armies located on the continent, on 21 February 1916 AD, the Burdum warfare started on behalf of Germany. Nine German divisions simultaneously invaded the right bank of the Moselle River and captured the First and Second War fronts. The Oz of the French army rose to face this challenge under the chairmanship of General Petain.
On 26 February, the German army remained just five miles from Burdun’s border. There was a fierce struggle for a few days. By 15 March, the German invasion began to languish and France had the opportunity to manage its architecture and logistics. A fierce battle broke out on the western side of the Muse which lasted until about April. In late May, Germany invaded both sides of the river and after a fierce battle succeeded in taking the fort of Vaux on 7 June. Germany was now at the peak of its success. French troops were stationed on the terrestrial fronts of the southern Mert Homme.
The struggle continued. The British army attacked Somme and got rid of Bardun. The last German invasion was on 3 September. Under the leadership of General Mangin, France retaliated and conquered most of the lost sites. After the final war of Burden on 20 August 1917, only Beaumont remained in the hands of Germany. The wars relaxed the French army, when the number of wounded Germans was nearly three million and its zeal faded.
Recruitment drive for ‘holy war’ near Tiberia (Ottoman Empire in 1918)
King George IV inspecting an arms factory with other officers in 1918
On the battlefield of Amiens, mainly battles were fought like trenches. From 21 March to about 20 April, the Germans rose from their fronts, covering the English army about 25 miles and brought them near the Ammen. Their objective was to take over the railway line which originates from the Port of Calle to Paris and from which the English army and goods were transported to the aid of France.
From about 20 April to 18 July, the Germans stayed near the amines. On the other hand, the Allied forces greatly consolidated their power, and their armies, which had earlier fought under the direction of their national generals, were subordinated to a commander-in-chief, Marshal Fosch.
After July 1918, the Allied forces under the direction of General Fosch defeated the Germans in many places.
The German General Commander Ludendarf made a sudden attack on the place where there was a confluence of English and French forces. This attack occurred on 21 March morning. At the time, when the movement of the army could not be detected due to fog, 4000 cannons started firing. On 4 April the German army was only two miles from the Calle-Paris Railway. On 11–12 April, the British generals requested soldiers to die fighting.
The Germans continued fighting near the Ammen for more than a week thereafter, but could not take possession of the Calle-Paris rail line. His attempt to separate the British from the French was unsuccessful.
For about three months from April 20, the Germans tried to defeat the Allied forces in other areas and were successful. But he did not get the opportunity to benefit from this success. The Allied countries had made arrangements to increase their power in this terrible situation.
On March 25, General Fosch was appointed commander of Allied forces in the region. The British Parliament increased the age of military service to 50 years in April and sent 3,55,000 soldiers to France within the month of April. Troops from America also started reaching France and gradually their number reached 6,00,000. The Allied Air Force prevailed due to new weapons and other inventions. Especially their tanks became very functional.
On 15 July, the Germans made their final invasion of the Marne River in an attempt to move towards Paris. The French army stopped this, and after three days, a strong attack on the Germans in the same area took 30,000 soldiers. Then on August 8, the British and French forces, under the chairmanship of General Hague near Amiens, suddenly attacked the Germans under the cover of fog at half-past four in the morning. In this battle, after four minutes of firing with cannons, hundreds of tanks were sent to the army, which caused a stir in the German army. 14 miles east of Amman between the rivers Abr and Saum, there was an attack on the front and there was so much damage to the Germans in that battle that Sündendorf named this day a black day for the German army.
In the Treaty of Versailles, strict conditions were imposed on Germany. Its bad result was manifested in the form of the Second World War and the main objective of establishing the League of Nations could not be fulfilled.